## Using the Calculator

To calculate the **Input Voltage** enter Resistor R1, Resistor R2 and Output Voltage and click Calculate Values.

To calculate the **Output Voltage** enter Input Voltage, Resistor R1 and Resistor R2 and click Calculate Values.

To calculate the value for **Resistor R1** enter Input Voltage, Resistor R2 and Output Voltage and click Calculate Values.

To calculate the value for **Resistor R2** enter Input Voltage, Resistor R1 and Output Voltage and click Calculate Values.

### What is a voltage divider?

A resistor voltage divider circuit is a simple yet essential electronic circuit used to reduce voltage and create reference voltages. It consists of two resistors connected in series across a voltage supply. The output voltage is taken from the junction of these two resistors. Here’s a detailed explanation of how it works:

### Basic Principle

The voltage divider works on the principle of voltage drop across resistors in a series circuit. According to Ohm's Law, the voltage drop across a resistor in a series circuit is proportional to its resistance.

### Voltage Divider Formula

Calculating the output voltage *V _{out}* can be achieved using the formula:

Where:

*V*is the input voltage._{in}*R*is the resistance of the first resistor._{1}*R*is the resistance of the second resistor._{2}*V*is the output voltage._{out}

### Working Explanation

**Total Resistance**: The total resistance of the series combination is*R*._{1}+ R_{2}-
**Current Through the Circuit**: Since the resistors are in series, the same current*I*flows through both resistors. Using Ohm's Law, the current is: -
**Voltage Drop Across R1**: The voltage drop across*R*(let's call it_{1}*V*) is:_{R1} -
**Voltage Drop Across R2**: The voltage drop across*R*(let's call it_{2}*V*) is:_{R2} -
**Output Voltage**: The output voltage*V*is the voltage across_{out}*R*, which is the same as_{2}*V*):_{R2}

### Applications

**Reference Voltage Generation**: To provide a specific voltage level lower than the input voltage.**Signal Level Adjustment**: To scale down signal voltages to appropriate levels for further processing.**Biasing Transistors**: To provide necessary biasing voltages in transistor circuits.**Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADC)**: To create specific voltage levels for comparison.

### Example Calculation

Suppose we have a voltage divider with *V _{in} = 12V, R_{1} = 2KΩ, and R_{2} = 3KΩ*.

Using the voltage divider formula:

Thus, the output voltage *V _{out}* is 7.2V.