This tool calculates the capacitance of capacitors in series.

## Total Capacitance =

### Understanding Capacitors in Series

When capacitors are connected in series, the effective capacitance decreases. This happens because the charge *Q* across each capacitor remains the same, but the voltage across each adds up, resulting in a lower overall capacitance compared to any single capacitor in the series.

#### How to Calculate

The formula to find the total capacitance *C _{total}* of capacitors in series is given by the reciprocal of the sum of the reciprocals of each individual capacitor's capacitance:

where:

*C _{total} = C_{1} + C_{2} + C_{3} + ··· + C_{n}* are the capacitances of each individual capacitor in the series.

#### Example

Suppose you have three capacitors in series with capacitances of 4 µF, 6 µF, and 12 µF. To find the total capacitance, use the formula:

Calculating this, we find:

So, the total capacitance *C _{total}* is:

#### Visual Representation

Visualizing this in a circuit:

Imagine each capacitor connected end-to-end (like a daisy chain). The first plate of the first capacitor connects to the second plate of the second capacitor, and so on, with the outer plates connecting to the circuit.

#### Key Points

**Total Capacitance Decreases:**In series, the total capacitance is always less than the smallest individual capacitor's capacitance in the group.**Voltage Adds Up:**The voltage across each capacitor when in series adds up, which is why the overall capacitance decreases.