I am affraid I do not know if you can use i2cget/i2cset to access the ADC as I don't have any experience using those tools on the Raspberry Pi.
To read a value from the ADC Differential Pi you first need to write to the configuration register and then read three or four bytes depending on the selected bit rate.
In 18 bit mode you read 4 bytes in all of the other modes you read three bytes. Once the configuration register has been written it will take a few milliseconds for the ADC to read the voltage and write it to the registers at which point it will set a ready bit to 0. This readybit is bit 7 of the last returned byte so you need to keep performing a read from the ADC chip until the ready bit shows that sample has been taken. You then need to combine the bytes from the last read to create the raw data value that can then be converted into a voltage. The bytes will need to be combined in different ways depending on the selected bit rate.
One if the bits in the returned value is a sign bit which shows if the value is positive or negative. In our libraries we save this value to a variable called signbit to be used later in the voltage calculations and then set the bit to be 0. The location of this bit is dependant on the bit rate so you will need to check the datasheet to find out which bit to read and then clear.
One thing to be aware of is when you perform an I2C read to get the values the ADC may not send an ACK bit with the last byte so if your sofware is looking for ACK bits to check if the data was received it may fail when the last byte is read.
If you understand the C programming language then it may be worth reading through the read_raw() function in our ADC Differential Pi C library so you can see how the library builds the configuration byte, sends it to the ADC and then reads back the data and combines it together.